Timothy L. S. Sprigge


Timothy L. S. Sprigge was born in London January 14, 1932. In 1955 he received his B.A. in English from Cambridge University. While working as a lecturer and researcher at University College London in 1958 he began an examination of Jeremy Bentham's papers that eventuated in the publication of the first two volumes of a work titled The Correspondence of Jeremy Bentham published in 1968. Notwithstanding his long time effort to bring to clarity the philosophy of idealism Prof. Sprigge has managed a "robust sense of reality" which it is said he owes to his wife, Giglia Gordon, to whom he has been married since 1960. Working under R. T. H. Redpath and, later, A.J.Ayer he received his Ph.D from Cambridge University in 1961, writing his dissertation on the topic "The Limits of Morals Defined." In addition to his well deserved reputation as a scholar on the thinking of F. H. Bradley, Prof. Sprigge is particularly keen on the American philosophers William James and George Santayana. In 1979 Sprigge was appointed as distinguished chair of logic and metaphysics at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. Perhaps his two most important works on metaphysics are A Vindication of Absolute Idealism (1983) and James and Bradley: American Truth and British Reality (1993). A past president of the Aristotelian Society (1991) he was elected fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1993. A long time defender of the value of animals in addition to humans, he continues to be actively engaged in research, writing, and life in general. This brief introduction to Prof. Sprigge is drawn largely from an excellent essay by Leemon McHenry: Dictionary of Literary Biography (Volume Two Hundred Sixty-Two): British Philosophers 1800-2000 ed. Philip P Dematteis and Leemon B. McHenry (A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. New York and London) Thomson: Gale,  chapter on Timothy L. S. Sprigge (1932-   ) by Leemon McHenry, pp. 266-274.



March 5, 2003

1. There once was a thinker called Plato
Who said "this our world's second rate-oh,
Its just a poor copy
Of something less sloppy
Where all is precise and first rate-oh".

2. That crafty old man Aristotle
Took his friends to look at a bottle
Saying "its causes are four,
No less and no more,
Glass, shape, vintner and drinking full throttle".

3. A French soldier known as Descartes
Said "I hope that you've taken to heart
That without a safe line
To something divine,
Each is stuck at his self engrossed start."

4. There once was a tutor called Locke
Who said that the self's like a sock
Though the wool is quite new
It's still really you
Because its been darned without shock.


5. That skilful lens grinder Baruch
Said "nothing can happen by fluke
For nothing is free
From Nature's decree,
Free will is just gobledy gook".

6. That worldly wise Gottfried Leibniz
Had most of the angels in fits
When he said "your external relations
Are just private sensations
From one monad to 'tother nowt flits".

7. There once was a vicar called Berkeley
Who said to his friends somewhat darkly
"This whole vale of tears
Is nowt but ideas"
That astonishing vicar called Berkeley.

8. That somewhat stout Scot David Hume
Said "this cosmos of ours has no room
For forces or powers
Its just hours and hours
Of impressions, then ideas, till the tomb".


9. That punctilious pedestrian Kant
Said the realness of ought I must grant
As for time and for space
You may laugh in my face
But call them genuinely real I just shan't.

10. That rather unnerving chap Hegel
Tried us all to the view to inveigle
That pure Nothing and Being
Far from not agreeing
In becoming are playboy and playgirl.

11. That gloomy old Sage Schopenhauer
Said "there's much more nettle than flower"
Nothing more he reviled
Than the person who smiled
And grieved not at the Cosmic Will's power.

12. That sad fellow Friedrich Nietzsche
Was once a fine classical teacher
Till a voice in his head
Told him God was now dead -
This became of his thought the chief feature.


13. Shall I marry her? asked Kierkegaard
I love her but Christ surely more
He sought mediation
To end hesitation
But God called out NO: - EITHER/OR.

14. That temperate man T. H. Green
Said "There's something divine but unseen
Which spins the relations
Which make our sensations.
A real world, if you see what I mean".

15. Said that soldierly mystic called Bradley
"Please don't take my system too sadly
Its really quite fun
Thinking everything's One
We should all feel unreal very gladly".

16. The Hegelian inclined Bosanquet
Said "its really, you know, rather wet
To expect each finite chappy
To be well fed and happy
For the Absolute ain't in our debt".


17. That most honest of thinkers McTaggart
Although very far from a braggart
Felt some pride in his proof
That time was a spoof
Which could never take in a McTaggart.

18. William James declared that the true
Is the thought which works best for you
And it works through its dealing
With those streams of pure feeling
Known as matter, mind, (and God too)

19. Martin Heidegger said don't repine
If you don't quite catch what's my line
You don't need much German
To follow my sermon
As long as you know the word Sein.

20. A man in a cafe called Sartre
Gave the other chaps there quite a start
By looking around
For someone not to be found
But whose absence still haunted Montmartre 1.

1 The demands of rhyme forced me to move Sartre from his more usual haunt of Montparnasse



21. A weirdo yclept Wittgenstein
Called out this whole world is "just mine"
But later he noted
That an ego so bloated
Had no room for mine or for thine.

22. A man from Ohio now dead3
Would lurk in the fields, so it is said,
So that when others screamed "rabbit"
He could indulge in his habit
Of shouting "Gavagai" instead.

23. A brain in a vat called Putnam
Said "perhaps this whole world's just a scam
Still, my thoughts must refer
To their causes out there
What they are I don't care a damn."

3This was written and recited to the Edinburgh Philosophy Department just after Quine's death. So it may become undated (I mean, because his death will no longer be something special.)


24. The truth of all this it seems plain
Is that philosophy would indeed be in vain
If its aim were a view
So objectively true
It will not be discarded again

25. But cheer yourselves up my good friends
Though its true that the search never ends
We may each in our day
Have our personal say
And feel free to ignore current trends.




The Correspondence of Jeremy Bentham, Athlone Press, 1968, Volumes 1 and 2 (edited and annotated). pp. xliv + 383 and xvi + 542.

Facts, Words and Beliefs, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970 pp. viii + 351. (re-printed as Greggs classic, 1995)

Santayana: An Examination of his Philosophy, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1974. pp. xii + 247 (second edition with new introduction, Routledge, 1995)

The Vindication of Absolute Idealism, Edinburgh University Press, 1983 pp. xiv+291

Theories of Existence, Pelican Books, 1984 pp. 187.

The Rational Foundations of Ethics, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987 pp. x +283

James and Bradley: American Truth and British Reality, Open Court Press, Chicago 1993 pp. xiv + 630

The God of Metaphysics, Being a Study of the Metaphysics and Religious Doctrines of Spinoza, Hegel, Kierkegaard, T. H. Green, Bernard Bosanquet, Josiah Royce, A. N. Whitehead, Charles Hartshorne, and Concluding with a Defence of Pantheistic Idealism.

Booklets (article length)

A. On the Significance of Spinoza’s Determinism, Medelingen vanwege het Spinozahuis, 58, Brill 1988 (the 1988 annual lecture of the Vereniging Het Spinozahuis) 16pp.

B. Religion without the supernatural: Spinoza and Santayana, Medelingen vanwege het Spinozahuis, 69, Eburon Delft, 1993 (lecture delivered at the Spinoza Lyceum in Amsterdam for the Vereniging Het Spinozahuis) 26 pp.

CONTRIBUTIONS TO BOOKS (EXCLUDING REPRINTS OF ARTICLES) I ‘Consciousness’ in The Ontological Turn: Essays in the Philosophy of Gustav Bergmann ed. E. Klemke and M.S. Gram. (Iowa University Press, 1974.) pp. 114-147.

II "Punishment and Moral Responsibility" in M. Goldinger,(ed) Punishment and Human Rights, Cambridge 1974 pp. 85-96.

III ‘The Animal Welfare Movement and the Foundations of Ethics’ in Animal Rights - A Symposium, ed. David Paterson and Richard Ryder,. (Fontwell: Centaur Press, 1978.) pp. 87-95

IV ‘Bradley and Russell on Relations’ in Bertrand Russell Memorial Volume ed. George Roberts. (Allen and Unwin, 1979) pp. 150-170.

V ‘The Distinctiveness of American Philosophy’ in Two Centuries of American Philosophy ed. Peter Caws. (Basil Blackwell, 1980) pp. 199-214.

VI ‘James, Tarski and Pragmatism' in Pragmatism and Purpose: Essays presented to Thomas Goudge ed. L.W. Sumner and others . (University of Toronto Press, 1981.) pp. 105-120.

VII ‘The Self and its World in Bradley and Husserl’ in The Philosophy of F. H Bradley Ed. A. Manser and G. Stock. (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1984.) pp. 285-302.

VIII ‘Utilitarianism’ in An Encyclopaedia of Philosophy ed. G.H.R.Parkinson (Routledge, 1988.) pp. 590-612. (This is not an encycopaedia in the usual sense.)

IX ‘Santayana’ in American Philosophy ed. Marcus Singer (Royal Institute of Philosophy Lecture Series; 19) Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. 115-134.

X ‘Schopenhauer and Bergson on Laughter’ in Comparative Criticism: An Annusal Journal ed. E.S.Shaffer. (Cambridge University Press, Volume 10, 1988.) pp. 39-65.

XI ‘Les Regles Morales de L’Experimentation Animale’ in Symposium Spéciale Pour La Securité et le Progrèes de la Recherche Biomédicale, Strasbourg, 1988 [Conference Proceedings. In spite of conference title mine was a critique of animal experimentation.] pp. 34-61.

XII ‘The Ethics of animal use in biomedicine’ in The Importance of Animal Experimentation for Safety and Biomedical Research ed. S. Garratini and D W van Bekkum. (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990.) pp. 17-28. [Book in English based on above conference proceedings]

XIII ‘Hartshorne on the Past’ in The Philosophy of Charles Hartshorne ed Lewis E Hahn. (Library of Living Philosophers, La Salle, Open Court Press, Illinois, 1991.) pp. 397-414.

XIV ‘Whitehead und Santayana’ in Die Gifford Lectures und ihre Deutung: Materialen zu Whitehead’s > Prozess und Realitat<, herausgegeben von Michael Hampe und Helmut Maassen,.(Suhrkamp Verlag Frankfurt am Main, 1991.) pp. 1121-141.

XV ‘Ayer on other minds’ in The Philosophy of A.J.Ayer ed. Lewis E Hahn,.Library of Living Philosophers, (La Salle, Open Court Press, Illinois, 1992.) pp. 577-595.

XVI ‘Fundamentalism and International Law’ in International Law and Armed Conflict ed. AGD Bradney. (Proceedings of 16th Conference of U.K. Association for Social and Legal Philosophy) (Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart, 1992.) pp. 103-108.

XVII ‘Refined and Crass Supernaturalism’ in Philosophy, Religion and the Spiritual Life ed. Michael McGhee. (Cambridge University Press, 1992.) (Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement: 32) pp. 105-125.

XVIII 'Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research: A Critique' in Principles of Health Care Ethics ed. Raanon Gillon. (John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, New York etc. 1994) pp. 1053-1066.

XIX ‘Bradley' , (chapter 15 of) Routledge History of Philosophy, Volume VII, The Nineteenth Century ed. C. L. Ten. (Routledge, 1994 pp. 437-458.)

XX "Idealism, Humanism and the Environment" in Current Issues in Idealism ed. by Paul Coates and Daniel D. Hutto, Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 1996, pp. 267-302.

XXI "Bradley's Doctrine of the Absolute" in Appearance versus Reality: New Essays on Bradley's Metaphysics ed. Guy Stock, Clarendon Press: Oxford 1998, pp. 193-217.

XXII "The Relation between Jeremy Bentham's Psychological and his Ethical Hedonism" in The Philosophical Age Almanac 9: pp. 19-43.

XXIII "The Absolute Idealism of Josiah Royce" in Anglo-American Idealism, 1865-1927, ed. W. J. Mander, Connecticut and London: Greenwood Press, pp. 141-162.

XXIV "Is the esse of intrinsic value percipi? pleasure, pain and value" in Philosophy, the Good, the True and the Beautiful, edited by Anthony O'Hear, Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement: 47, Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. 119-140.
 Advisory Editor of Metaphysics: The Classic Readings ed. David E. Cooper, Oxford: Blackwell, 2000.

XXV "James, aboutness and his British critics" in The Cambridge Companion to William James edited Ruth Anna Putnam, Cambridge University Press, 1997 pp. 124-144.

XXVI "Spinoza", "Schopenhauer", "William James" in The Philosophers: introducing Great Western Thinkers ed. Ted Honderich, Oxford University Press, 1995 (reprints of articles in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (see below).

XXVII "Is Pity the Basis of Ethics? Nietzche versus Schopenhauer" in The Basis of Ethics ed William Sweet, Milwaukee, Marquette University Press, 2000 pp. 103-125.

XXVIII "The World of Description and the World of Acquaintance" in Beyond Conflict and Reduction: Between Philosophy, Science and Religion, ed. William Desmond, John Steffen and Koen Decoster, Leuven University Press, 2001 pp. 9-30.

XXIX “Respect for the Non-Human” in The Philosophy of the Environment ” ed. T. D. J. Chappell, Edinburgh University Press, 1997, pp 117-134.

XXX "A. J. Ayer" in A Companion to Analytic Philosophy pp. 205-217. ed. A.P. Martinich and David Sosa , Oxford: Blackwells, 2001.

XXXI “Idealism” (Chapter 11 of) Blackwell Guide to Metaphysics ed. Richard Gale Blackwell Publishers 2002 pp. 219-241 X

XXXII "Could Parapsychology Have Any Bearing on Religion?" in Parapsychology, Philosophy and the Mind: Essays Honoring John Beloff, edited Fiona Steinkamp McFarland & Company, Inc. Jefferson, North Caolina and London 2002.

XXXIII Josiah Royce in Dictionary of Literary Biography (Volume Two Hundred Seventy) *American Philosophers Before 1950* ed. Philip P Dematteis,  Peter S. Fosl, and Leemon B. McHenry (A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book)  Thomson: Gale, pp. 267-282.

XXXIV Chapters on Spinoza, Schopenhauer, and William James in The Philosophers: Introducing Great Western Thinkers, ed. Ted Honderich, Routledge, 2001.

XXXV 'William James as a Religious Realist', Chapter 14 of William James and The Varieties of Religious Experience ed. Jeremy Carrette, Routledge, 2005

Encyclopaedia Entries:

1. Handbook of Metaphysics and Ontology Vols I and II, ed. H. Burkhardt and B. Smith. (Philosophia Verlag, Munich, 1991.): 'the Absolute', 'Idealism/Realism', 'William James', 'McTaggart', 'Monism/Pluralism', 'Panpsychism', 'Pantheism', 'Internal Relations', 'Josiah Royce', 'George Santayana', 'Schopenhauer', 'Spinoza'. (Collaborating Editor)

4. Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy ed Edward Caird. 'Idealism' (4,500 words), 'the Absolute' (1100 words), 'panpsychism' (2000 words)

5. Encyclopaedia of Ethics (first edition) ed. L. C. Becker. Garland Publishing, Inc. 1992 ‘Idealist Ethics’; ‘Santayana’.

6. Encyclopaedia of Ethics (second edition) ed. L. C. Becker. Garland Publishing, Inc. 1992, as above plus 'Ayer', 'Organic Unities' and 'Naturalistic Fallacy'.

7. The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy ed. Robert Audi, CUP. 1995 'Objectivism (Ethical)’ and ‘Panpsychism’

8. Oxford Companion to Philosophy, OUP, 1995: 'Ayer A J'; 'Bradley F H'; 'Broad C D'; 'Butler, Joseph'; 'Butler, Samuel'; 'Spinoza'; 'James, William'; 'Ross, W.D.'; 'Santayana, George'; 'Schopenhauer Arthur'; 'Relations in metaphysics'; 'Tough-mindedness'; 'Verification Principle'; 'Will to Believe'.)

2. Dictionary of Theology and Society, Routledge: 'Teleological Ethics' (Details lost.)

3.'Santayana' in The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy ed. Thomas Mautner, Penguin Books, 1997


1. ‘Internal and External Properties’ Mind, Vol. LXXI, N.S,, No. 282, April 1963, pp. 197-212..

2. ‘Definition of a Moral Judgement’ Philosophy 1964, 301-322. (reprinted in The Concept of Morality ed. Wallace and Walker, Methuen Co., 1973, pp. 119-145).

3. ‘The Common Sense View of Physical Objects’ Inquiry , Volume 9, 1965 pp. 339-373.

4. 'A Utilitarian Reply to Dr McCloskey’ Inquiry 1965, pp. 264-291.(reprinted in Contemporary Utilitarianism ed. M. Bayle, Anchor Books, 1965 pp. 261-299, and, in shortened form, in Philosophical Perspectives on Punishment ed. G. Ezorsky, State University of New York Press, Albany, 1972 pp. 66-79.

5. ‘Professor Narveson’s Utilitarianism’, Inquiry, 11, 1968, pp. 332-348.

6. ‘The Privacy of Experience’ Mind, Vol. LXXVII, N.S. No. 312, October, 1969, pp. 512-521.

7. ‘Santayana and Verificationism’ Inquiry 121, 1969, pp. 265-286.

7a. Review Discussion: Santayana: New Books, Inquiry 12, pp. 362-366

8. ‘The Analytical Solipsism of William Todd’ Inquiry Vol. 13 1970, pp. 462-468.

9. ‘Glover on Responsibility’ Inquiry , Volume 14, 1971, pp. 464-471,

10. ‘Final Causes’ Supplementary Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Vol. XLV, 1971, pp. 149-170.

11. ‘Ideal Immortality’ Southern Journal of Philosophy, Summer, 1972, Vol. 20, pp. 219-235. (Article on Santayana’s theory of time for special Santayana number)

12. ‘Quinton’s half-hearted Ontology’ (Review discussion) Inquiry 1974 Volume 18 pp. 355-366.

13. ‘Reinhardt Grossmann’s Ontological Reduction (Review Discussion) Nous, 9, (1975) pp. 429-445.

14. ‘Spinoza’s Identity Theory’ Inquiry, Vol. 20,1977, pp. 419-445. (Contribution to special tercentenary number on Spinoza - reprinted in Philosophy through its Past ed. Ted Honderich, Pelican, 1984 pp. 145-174.)

15. 'Metaphysics, Physicalism and Animal Rights’ Inquiry, Vol. 22, 1979, pp. 101-143.

16. "Comment on ‘Language and Metaphysics’" Theoria to Theory, 1978, Vol 12, pp. 75-80.

17. ‘Metaphysical Enquiry’ Theoria to Theory, 1978, Vol 12, pp.m 135-149.

18. 'Knowledge of Subjectivity’ Theoria to Theory, 1981, Vol 14, pp. 313-325.

19. ‘Intellect at the Mercy of Will’ Times Higher Eduction Supplement, 20 February 1982, No 433, p.12.[I have not normally included this kind of thing in list, but include this because it offers what seems to be an original clarification of Schopenhauer's position on reincarnation]

20. 'Honderich, Davidson and the Question of Mental Holism' Inquiry, 24, 1981 pp. 323-341.

21. 'The Importance of Subjectivity: an inaugural lecture' Inquiry, Vol. 25, 1982, pp. 143-163.

22. 'Vivisection, Morals, Medicine: Commentary from an anti-vivisectionist philosopher’ Journal of Medical Ethics, June 1982, Vol 9. No. 2, pp. 98-101.

23. ‘Santayana and Panpsychism’ Bulletin of the Santayana Society, No. 2, Fall, 1984, pp. 1-8.

24. ‘Non-Human Rights: An Idealist Perspective’ Inquiry, Vol. 27, 1984, pp. 439-461.

25. ‘Utilitarianism and Idealism: A Rapprochement’ Philosophy, Vol. 60, October 1985, pp. 447-463.

26. ‘Philosophers and Antivivisectionism’ Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, December, 1985, Vol 13, pp. 99-106.

27. ‘Persuasivness of High Probability Values - Reply' (to R. D. Marsh) Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 1986, Vol. 14, pp. 299-300.

28. ‘Philosophy and Common Sense’ Revue Internationale de Philosophie, no. 185, 1986, pp. 195-206.

29. ‘Are there intrinsic values in nature?’ Journal for Applied Philosophy, Volume 4, Number 1, 1987, pp. 21-28. (Reprinted in Applied Philosophy: Morals and Metaphysics in Contemporary Debate ed. Brenda Almond and Donald Hill, Routledge, 1991 ) pp.37-44.

30.‘A Philosophical Journey to India’ Edinburgh Philosophy Journal 1988

31. 'Do Animals have Rights?’ Synapse, (Edinburgh Medical School Journal, Summer 1987), pp. 19-23.

32. ‘Ethical Considerations on Animal Experimentation’ Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, Vol. 14, Number 4, June 1987, pp. 307-311.

33. ‘Personal and Impersonal Identity’ Mind, XCVII, 385, January, 1988, pp. 29-49

34. ‘Intrinsic Connectedness’ Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, New Series, Vol LXXXVIII 1987/88, pp. 129-145.

35. ‘Utilitarianism and Respect for Human Life’ Utilitas, March, 1989 pp. 1-21

36. ‘Personal and Impersonal Identity: Reply to Oderberg’ Mind, Vol. 98, January, 1989, pp. 605-610.

37. ‘A. J. Ayer: An Appreciation of his Philosophy’ Utilitas, Spring, 1990, pp. 2-11.

38. ‘Do animals have rights?' Pamphlet published by The St Andrew Animal Fund (5 pp.)

39. ‘The Ethics of Animal Experimentation’ Pamphlet published by Advocates for Animals (5 pp.)

40. ‘The Satanic Novel: A Philosophical Dialogue’ Inquiry, Vol. 33, December, 1990, pp. 377-400.

41. 'Some Recent Positions in Environmental Philosophy Examined’ Inquiry Vol. 34 No. l March 1991, pp. 107-128.

42. ‘The Greatest Happiness Principle’ Utilitas Vol 3. No. 1 May 1991, pp. 38-51.

43. ‘William James 1960-1990’ British Society for the History of Philosophy Newsletter, No. 6, Spring 1991, pp. 14-29.

44. ‘The Unreality of Time’ (Presidential Address) in Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 1991/1992, pp. 1-19.

45. ‘L’Etica in Gabbia’ in Sapere, Mensile, Giugno, 1992 anno 580 n. 6(949) (Italian translation of XII) pp, 9-16.

46. ‘Is Dennett a disillusioned zimbo?’ Inquiry , Vol. 36, pp 33-57, 1993

47. 'Spinoza on God and Nature' in The Edinburgh Star (Journal of the Edinburgh Jewish Community) May 1993, No. 15, Sivan 5753, pp. 18-22.

48. 'Consciousness' in Synthese 98, 1994. pp. 73-93.

49. 'Idealism contra Idealism: the conceptual idealism of Nicholas Rescher' in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research June 1994, Vol 54. No. 2. pp. 408-414.

50. ‘Bradley and Christianity’ Bradley Studies Volume 1, Number 1. Spring 1995, pp. 69-85.

51. 'Guidizio e verità nel pensiero di. F. H. Bradley' in I problemi della pedagogia, Anno XLI Marzo/Giugno 1995, N2-3 pp. 275-305 (special issue on 'L'idealismo britannico') Stampatre, Via Bologna, Torino.

52. 'Absolute Idealism' in Philosophical Writings, No. 2, May 1996 pp. 82-100.) [+ "Orientations" pp. 98-100]

53. “A Reply to Joseph Bernstein” Journal of Medical Ethics, Oct 1996 Vol 22, Number 5, pp. 302-303.

54. ''Commentary on "Minds, Memes, and Multiples" Philosophy. Psychiatry, & Psychology Vo,. 3, Number 1, March 1996, pp. 31-36.

55. “Bird on Sprigge on Bird: A Reply” (about the interpretation of William James) Bradley Studies Vol 2, Number 2. Autumn 1996. pp, 117-128.

56. “Kerr-Lawson on Truth and Santayana”, Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society, Winter, 1997, Vol. XXXIII, No. 1, pp. 113-130.

57. “Spinoza and Indexicals” Inquiry, Vol. 40, 1997. pp. 3-22.

58. “Pantheism”, The Monist, April, 1997, Volume 80, Number 2, pp. 191-217

59. “The Absolute Idealism of Josiah Royce” The Philosophers’ Magazine Issue One: Winter, 1997 pp. 32-33.

60. "Consciousness: A Panpsychist's View" The Philosophers Magazine, Issue Two: Spring 1998, pp. 42-45.

61. "Is Spinozism a Religion?" in Studia Spinozana Volume 11 (1995): Special Issue: Spinoza's Philosophy of Religion pp.137-162.

62. "The God of the Philosophers" in Studies in World Christianity Volume 4, Part 2, 1998, pp.149-172.

63. "Freedom is Necessity" The Philosophers' Magazine, Issue Six, Spring 1999 (on Spinoza) pp. 46-50.

64. "Dreyfus and Spinosa on Things-in-Themselves" Inquiry, 1999, 42, 115-124

65. "Whitehead and Santayana" in Process Studies, Volume 28/12 Spring-Summer, 1999 pp. 43-55 (translation of XIV back into English).

66. "Has speculative metaphysics a future?" in The Monist, October, 1998, Vol. 81, Number 4, 1999, pp. 513-533.

67. "The Relation between Jeremy Bentham's Psychological, and his Ethical, Hedonism' Utilitas Vol. 11, Number 3. November 1999 296-319 (new version of xxv above).

68. "Is consciousness mysterious? in Anthropology and Philosophy Volume 3, no. 2, 1999, pp. 5-19.

69. Review Article: "James's Divided Self" in British Journal of the History of Philosophy xxx pp. 145-155. [Discussion of The Divided Self by Richard M. Gale, Cambridge University Press, 1999.]

70. Feature Review Article of Within Reason: A Life of Spinoza by Margaret Gullan-Whur. London, 1998 and Spinoza: A Life by Steven Nadler, New York. in International Philosophical Quarterly VOL XL1, No. 1. ISSUE No. 161 (March 2001) pp. 91-97.

71. Review Discussion: "Selected Correspondence: 1872-1904, Collected Works of F. H. Bradley" Bradley Studies pp. 78-100 in Bradley Studies,Vol. 7, Number 1, Spring 2001.

72. "The Mind of Spinoza's God" in IYYUN The Jerusalem Philosophical Quarterly 50 (July 2001 pp.253-272)

73 (Forthcoming): 'Spinoza and the Motives of Right Action: Some Remarks on Spinoza's Ethics IV (proceedings of the 1993 Jerusalem conference on Spinoza's Ethics, due for publication shortly in volume IV of Spinoza by 2000 published E. J. Brill).

74 "What might parapsychology contribute to our view of the world?" in Think; Philosophy for Everyone [A Journal of the Royal Institute of Philosophy] issue three spring 2003.

75 "Kierkegaard and Hegel" (Review of Kierkegaard's Relations to Hegel Reconsidered by Jon Stewart) British Journal of History of Philosophy 2005

76 "Our Duties to Animals" in Faith and Reason, 2006


The God of Metaphysics and the God of Religion

The Phenomenology of Thinking



Book: The Phenomenology of Thinking

Book: The God of Metaphysics and the God of Religion,(chapters on Spinoza, Pascal, Hegel, Kierkegaard, T.H. Green and Edward CairdBosanquet, Royce, Whitehead, Hartshorne and possibly some later thinkers).


Can God's existence be proved? (Talk given in Dehli)

Animals in Philosophy (Talk given in Liverpool)

Is empiricism an idealism? (Talk given at George Davie confnce, Edinburgh)

"How many members has the realm of truth? (on Santayana and Truth) talk given at Santayana conference in Avila Lecture on William James on Truth (given at Birkbeck College)

Some Reviews since 1998

Environmental Ethics and Process Thinking by Clare Palmer Review in Environmental Ethics

Past Times by David Cockburn Review in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research

The God of Spinoza by David Mason Review in Philosophical Books

Darwinian Domination: Animal Welfare and Human Interests, by Lewis Petrinovic MIT Press, 1999 (iin Journal of Medical Ethics, 2000: 26 p 412

Spinoza: A Life by Steven Nadler, Cambridge UP 1999

Within Reason: A Life of Spinoza by Margaret Gullan-Whur, Jonathan Cape 1998

Animal Gospel: Christian Faith as though Animals Mattered By Andrew Linzey, Hodder & Stoughton, London, Sydney, Auckland, 1998 £6. 99p

Environmental Ethics and Process Thinking by Clare Palmer in Environmental Ethics, summer 2000

Review of Vindication of Idealism
Sprigge's Vita